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  汉语和英语两种语言之间最基本的区别在于句法方面。英语重形合 (hypotaxis),句中各意群、成分都用适当的连接词 (connective)、介词 (preposition)、非限定性动词短语 (phrase)或从句 (clause)等来表达其相互关系,因而结构严谨但缺乏弹性;而汉语句法则重意合(parataxis),句中各意群、成分通过内在的联系贯穿在一起,不一定或很少用连接词、介词,也没有非限定性动词短语或从句,因此结构松散,但富于弹性,从句子整体来看,意义清楚,不会产生误解。


  Chronological (temporal)sequence 顺序

  At first, first, firstly, second, secondly, then, next, eventually, in the end, lastly, later, subsequently, at the same time, simultaneously, afterwards, finally, last but not leastAdditive 补充

  And, in addition, moreover, besides, above all, further, furthermore, not only … but also, what is more, in the same wayComparison 比较

  Likewise, equally, similarly, in comparison, correspondingly, in the same wayComparison / Contrastive 比较 / 对比

  But, however, whereas, conversely, in contrast, unlike, on the contrary, on the other hand, yetConcessive 让步

  However, nevertheless, even though, still, yetExpressing an alternative 提出可选项

  Alternatively, on the other hand, rather


  Causal (result/consequence) 因果

  Consequently, so, accordingly, as a result, for this reason, hence, thus, owing to this/that, due to this/that, because of this/that, therefore, with this in mind, under these circumstancesExample / illustration 举例

  For example, that is, such as, for instance, thus, as follows, the following, in this caseExplanation / rephrasing 解释

  That is to say, in other words, namely, this means, to put it in another way, to put it simplyThematising/starting a new point 提出新观点With regard to, in regard to, with reference to, turning to, as for…, as far as… is concernedGeneralisation / hedging 模糊限制语

  Generally, in general, on the whole, in most cases, normally, as a rule, in most cases, usually, for the most partInterpersonal (情感)交际

  Fortunately, unfortunately, certainly, luckily, needless to say, strangely enoughEmphasis/highlighting 强调

  Mainly, especially, notably, in particular, particularly, clearly thenConclusion 总结

  In conclusion, to conclude, finally, to sum up, in brief, thereforeCondition/deduction 条件

  Otherwise, under the circumstances, if so, if not, in that case, otherwise




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